Pakistani Nuclear Proliferation

You probably know the story about nuclear proliferation by Pakistan. I have written related posts here and here. This post brings together some of the news coming out of Pakistan regarding the recent questioning of Pakistani nuclear scientists.

A lot of the articles in The News were written by their investigative journalist, Kamran Khan (Some comments about him by another Pakistani blogger later in this post.)

First came the disassociation of the army from this debacle.

More than a quarter of a century after its nuclear programme was covertly launched during which every effort was made to keep its activities completely secret and most of its transactions remained undocumented and unaccountable, Pakistan’s nuclear programme has now been placed under the strict control of Pakistan Army, which has placed rigorous checks and controls on every aspect of the programme.

[…]A retired Pakistani official, who remained associated with Pakistani nuclear programme for long, said, […] “We were forced to write blank cheques and not to ask for receipts. Administrative checks were difficult to place and devoted and educated human resource was difficult to find,” he said, frankly acknowledging that may be ‘a few’ of the thousands of international complaints and reports circulated to malign Pakistan’s nuclear programme had some merit.

[…]Former officials have informed that Pakistan Army remained actively associated with Pakistan’s nuclear programme since it was launched by the former Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in 1974, but, at several stages “huge un-audited funds” were to be placed at the disposal of the top scientists attached with the programme.

Next came the revelation that there was some official cooperation between Pakistan and Iran on nuclear matters.

Investigators probing the nuclear imbroglio have determined that at least two scientists acted inappropriately and exchanged information with Iran beyond the limit authorised to them by the government in late 1980s, according to senior officials.

Officials said in 1987 former military ruler General Zia-ul-Haq had approved a longstanding request from the Iranian government for an unpublicised cooperation in peaceful nuclear programme. But Zia had specifically limited Pak-Iran nuclear technology to non-military spheres.

“Just before his death in 1988 when I told Zia about Iran’s growing interest in non-peaceful nuclear matters, he asked me to play around but not to yield anything substantial at any cost,” said a top retired nuclear scientist, who asked not to be identified.

The scientist said he was aware that the Iranians were intensely pursuing the matter with General Aslam Beg, Zia’s successor, but did not know how Beg responded to the Iranian request because by that time he was not directly associated with the programme.

[…]”I don’t know about the exact nature of transfer of technology that took place but I knew that nothing moves in Pakistani nuclear spectrum without the knowledge of the chief of army staff,” said a former Pakistani nuclear scientist, who questioned Beg’s press statements, saying while he was the COAS [Chief of Army Staff] the decision making about nuclear programme was with the former prime minister Benazir Bhutto and later with Nawaz Sharif.

Officials, though do not discount Beg’s influence and knowledge about the nuclear exchange that took place between some Pakistani and Iranian nuclear scientists in 1989-90, said equally important voice in the nuclear matters during that period was that of Ghulam Ishaq Khan, former president.

The trace of money is always important in such cases.

Foreign accounts used to deposit the proceeds from the transfer of some nuclear technology to Iran have been traced back to at least two senior nuclear scientists, high-level government sources have revealed.

[…]The Iranian authorities have already confirmed the information about these bank accounts that were being controlled by the suspected Pakistani nuclear scientists. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US government also had the full details of the financial transactions that took place between the Pakistani scientists and their Iranian sources, official sources said.

After a lot of hints in previous articles, this is the first one which directly implicates Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan.

Pakistani investigators have made an independent confirmation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) allegation that nuclear scientist Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan had direct ties with international black market dealers who sold non-peaceful nuclear technology and hardware to Iran and Libya, and offered similar deals to Syria and former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, well informed officials have said.

[…]A senior official […] confirmed that Dr [Abdul Qadeer] Khan has been advised to stay home, which is now being guarded by the military intelligence sleuths.

[…]Pakistani investigators and IAEA have no doubt that at least two senior Pakistani nuclear scientists were the main “sources of supply” for the nuclear black marketeers who principally operated out of Dubai.

[…]”Not many years ago when the father of an extremely successful Chinese nuclear programme died the Peoples Daily carried a three-line story on its inside page,” the official recalled while disclosing that since 1988 Dr Khan spent about Rs 50 million to finance media events eulogising his role as Father of Islamic Bomb.

Dr. Khan definitely had a huge appetite for personal publicity.

“Money trail is one solid piece of evidence,” said one official. “But most importantly the governments of Iran and Libya have exposed the racket. They made no attempt to hide their sources as if they wanted to settle score with Pakistani scientists.”

[…]Pakistani investigators said that they have strong reasons to believe that misusing a benign government authority for peaceful nuclear cooperation with Iran, Dr A Q Khan authorised transfer of related information, including blue prints, names of third party contacts to Iranian authorities. He later helped Iran produce centrifuges for the uranium enrichment in early nineties.

Pakistani officials have privately acknowledged that the recent events exposed highest levels of negligence, financial impropriety and security lapses at the Khan Research Laboratory, the nation’s most sensitive nuclear installations throughout the nineties.

We are finally getting some complaints about the army.

“Successive army chiefs and the heads of various military intelligence services looked the other way as insiders volunteered information about all sorts of problems in the highest echelon of the KRL bureaucracy,” said one official source.

[…]Dr A Q Khan?s visits to Iran were in the full knowledge of the ISI as its then chief Lt Gen Asad Durrani, like his boss Gen Aslam Beg, was among the main proponents of Pakistan-Iran defence cooperation.

“If Gen Durrani didn’t know what was going on between the KRL and the Iranian scientists in 1991 and 1992, then it was terrible miss for the ISI,” the former ISI source said.

More dirt on Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan.

An investigation by Pakistani officials is understood to have found evidence to suggest that the key players of an underground nuclear black market that supplied some important elements of nuclear technology to Iran and Libya were tied with Pakistani nuclear scientist, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan. The investigators have, however, not yet been able to fix the responsibility of the most damaging security lapses at the KRL, where the GHQ and the ISI were running a four-tier security system, under two separate brigadiers of the Pakistan Army. “Even during the 1980s and 1990s, when Dr Qadeer was the ultimate boss of the KRL, the security contingents were free from his control and they were only answerable to the Army and their relevant intelligence services,” a KRL source said.

It seems like the military side is getting off scot-free.

Separately, a Dubai-based Sri Lankan middleman, who was a central figure in dealings between Iran and Pakistani scientists has named Dr Qadeer, as his principal contact in Pakistan. This Sri Lankan businessman, who spoke with the IAEA and the Western intelligence agents in Malaysia recently, provided a graphic insight into the current nuclear black market and its association with a few Pakistani scientists.

Official sources disclosed that while the investigation into Dr Qadeer’s financial status was carried out in Islamabad, Dubai, London and some other countries, there are strong indications that some of the KRL scientists, still being questioned by the investigators, were living well within their means and allegation of financial impropriety may not hold against a few of them.

And now some information about the riches of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan. I should mention that it was well-known in Islamabad that he lived royally.

Not many Pakistanis would even know that the famous “Timbuktu” is a city in the African state of Mali. Even fewer would know that the father of Pakistan’s nuclear bomb, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan has built a fabulous hotel there and has named it after his Dutch wife, Dr Hendrina Khan.

Hendrina Khan hotel in Timbuktu was one of the dozens of business and financial undertakings of Dr Qadeer that are now being investigated by the Pakistani intelligence officials, currently probing the IAEA charges that an extensive nuclear black market is tied to a few Pakistani nuclear scientists.

[…]Dr Qadeer’s indirect connection with some Dubai-based companies, including a real estate project and several bank accounts, is also being probed. In Islamabad and in the nearby Bani Gala, the authorities have uncovered Dr Qadeer’s direct or indirect association with at least half a dozen houses, having combined value exceeding Rs 150 million.

Here are some hints of the influence of the Pakistani army on the nuclear program.

While the investigation on financial charges against Dr Qadeer and a few other colleagues continue in full swing, there is an overwhelming view even in the senior brass of the Army that no probe can get to the bottom of the matter unless it finds out the reasons as to why the military guardians and overseers of the nuclear programme failed in their administrative, security and intelligence responsibilities regarding the KRL. “We must concede that there is a growing perception both within the country and abroad that the Army is essentially trying to cover up its failures on the KRL,” said a federal cabinet minister during a private conversation with this correspondent in Islamabad on Friday.

[…]”Briefing on nuclear programme is provided only on the need-to-know basis; I don’t think there is any need for that at this moment,” replied Gen Mirza Aslam Beg, the then chief of Pakistan Army, when former prime minister Benazir Bhutto asked him about the status of the country’s nuclear programme, during a military briefing arranged for her at the Joint Staff Headquarters, a few months after her take-over as the prime minister for the first term in 1989,” according to a retired Pakistani military official who was present on the occasion.

Pakistani officials related with the country’s nuclear programme and several retired military officials confirmed that during her two terms in power Benazir was never invited, despite her repeated requests, to visit the Khan Research Laboratory (KRL). During his first term as the prime minister, Nawaz Sharif was also denied a request to visit the KRL by Gen Mirza Aslam Beg and also by his successor Gen Asif Nawaz, according to a retired corps commander. “Gen Beg kept the programme under such a thick cover that he didn’t even allow the two successive prime ministers to look inside,” said another retired lieutenant general, who had also commanded a corps of Pakistan Army in the 1990s. “What do you do when the army chief thinks that the prime minister of the country is a security risk.”

[…]A serving KRL official, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said the Army as “the guardian of programme” had multi-tier involvement in the KRL affairs. “While Army chiefs gave strategic guidance and regular appreciation to scientists, Army Chief of General Staff was there to iron out significant administrative and financial issues and the DG CD [Directorate General of Combat Development] coordinated research and development,” the KRL scientist said. “Two separate brigadiers had hundreds of troops and agents at their disposal to run an impregnable multi-tier security network at the KRL,” he adds. “The ISI had a separate detachment for the KRL.

And finally some official statements:

Seven suspects, including Dr Qadeer Khan, remained under investigation for allegedly selling nuclear secrets to Iran and Libya, and a decision on whether to put them on trial would only be made when the probe was complete, Director-General Inter-Services Public Relations Maj-Gen Shaukat Sultan said on Sunday.

[…]Dr Qadeer’s house in Islamabad is under 24-hour watch, and security was beefed up on Saturday. “I wouldn’t call it house arrest,” said Sultan. “He is an important figure and there is a probe going on and he is now one of suspects.”

The leaders of the religious alliance MMA acted predictably.

Amir Jamaat-e-Islami Qazi Hussain Ahmad has called upon the people to observe a complete strike on February 6 to express solidarity with Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan and other nuclear scientists. He further demanded an open trial of the scientists in accordance with the law of the land.

Then come reports of a confession by Dr. Khan.

Dr A.Q. Khan, who is credited to have set up Pakistan’s nuclear programme, has admitted to having transferred nuclear technology to North Korea, Iran and Libya , authoritative sources disclosed in a background briefing to Dawn on Sunday.

Abundant evidence to the effect is also said to have been extracted during the almost two-month-long ‘debriefing’ of most of the top scientists and officials of the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL), the sources said.

Dr Khan is also said to have accepted the allegation about transfer of nuclear technology to these three countries, in a signed 12-page document which he had submitted to the authorities a few days ago.

As was expected, former army chiefs were absolved of any blame in the matter.

Two former army chiefs were questioned in the probe into nuclear leaks to Iran, Libya and North Korea, but no evidence was found against them, a military official said today. Abdul Qadeer Khan named ex-army chiefs Aslam Beg and Jehangir Karamat in an 11-page statement confessing to selling nuclear secrets to the three states between 1988 and 1997, the official said. “He named two gentlemen, generals Beg and Karamat, who were then questioned,” the military official said on condition of anonymity. “(Khan) said they were in the know. In one case he said he did it on their instructions, but not directly. They asked someone else and that fellow instructed A Q Khan and that man is now dead.” The middleman was the late brigadier Imtiaz Ali, defence adviser to Benazir Bhutto during her first tenure as prime minister from 1988 to 1990. Both Beg, who was army chief from 1988 to 1991, and Karamat, army chief from 1997 to 1998, were “thoroughly” questioned during a two month probe by Pakistani investigators. “There was no evidence found of what A Q Khan was saying, so it could not be sustained,” the official said. “If there is any more evidence of involvement of anyone else they will be questioned, no one is above the law.

Dr. Khan then started his multi-pronged defence strategy. Here is his “friend” and he is also alleged to have provided a taped interview to his daughter who has gone abroad.

Abdul Qadeer Khan told investigators he gave nuclear weapons technology to other countries with the full knowledge of top army officials, including now-President Gen. Pervez Musharraf, a friend of the scientist said today. Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistan’s top nuclear scientist, told the friend he hadn’t violated Pakistan’s laws by giving out-of-use machines for enriching uranium to Iran, North Korea and other countries, the friend told The Associated Press on condition of anonymity. “Whatever I did, it was in the knowledge of the bosses,” Khan’s friend quoted him as saying. The scientist also said that two former military chiefs —- Gen. Mirza Aslam Beg and Gen. Jehangir Karamat —- and even Musharraf were “aware of everything” he was doing, the friend said. “I am also convinced that (Khan) couldn’t act unilaterally,” the friend added. Military spokesman Maj. Gen. Shaukat Sultan denied Musharraf was privy to any transfer of nuclear technology or authorized Khan to do it. “It is absolutely wrong,” Sultan said. Musharraf “was not involved in any such matter,” he said. “No such thing has happened since he seized power in 1999.” Musharraf has headed the army since 1998, and before that held a number of top positions in the military. The official said two individuals, from Sri Lanka and Germany, operated on behalf of Khan in smuggling that began in the 1980s and continued at least until 1997.

Army Chiefs deny any involvement while some scientists and ex-military officers confess.

Beg denied in interviews last week approving or being aware of the sale of nuclear secrets.

[…]President Pervez Musharraf, who has been army chief since 1998, has categorically denied any military knowledge or approval of the nuclear leaks, and has blamed civilian scientists and international black marketeers.

More than a dozen nuclear scientists, engineers and administrators have been questioned during the probe, which was prompted by information from Iran via the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in November.

Around half have been cleared and the probe narrowed last week to three ex-military officers and three nuclear scientists. Apart from Khan, four others have confessed to transferring nuclear expertise but they have yet to be named, an official close to the investigation told.

Another indirect claim, via the religious alliance, from Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan denies any confession.

Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan denied to have admitted in written about transferring nuclear technology to any country, sources reported on Tuesday.

This he told to Chief of Jama’at-e-Islami Kazi Hussein during telephonic conversation held Eid UL-Uzha night, claimed by Ammer-UL-Azeem, Central Secretary of Jama’at-e-Islami Pakistan.

Some of the scientists are “detained” now rather than “being debriefed.”

Pakistani government has ordered to detain four Pakistani scientists for three months who were accused to have given nuclear weapons technology to other countries. The order is implementable since January 31 of the current year, said a report on Tuesday.

The orders of detention of the four under investigation scientists was issued in consonance with the Security of Pakistan Act 1952, Sub-clause B of Section 3, according to Interior Ministry.

The scientists who have been issued the orders included Dr Farooq, Dr Nazir Ahmed, Brigadier (R) Sajawal and Major (R) Islam-UL-Haq.

Here is some information related to the Security of Pakistan Act 1952.

And here are Soliloquist’s comments about this issue.

Leaving aside what kind of dirt ‘foreign’ press’ has been digging up in the IAEA allegations against Pakistani scientists in their ignoble roles in nuclear proliferation, here’s a gleaning from the local press. KK [Kamran Khan], let me also tell u, is much maligned in the Pakistani journalistic cadres because of his alleged links with Intelligence agencies who supply him with fodder for his Investigative reports (I did a research/survey report on the topic at University). Secondly, KK works for a TV channel/Media group which is left with no other option but to discretely toe the ‘official’ line for its survival and success.

I don’t know if the information she provides about Kamran Khan is true or not. I read Kamran’s articles only occassionally.

[…]Such a story, whatever its source, would have never made it to mainstream media if there was not an element of truth to it and had not the govt. given its go ahead. Getting the drift?

I sort of agree with her here. I am not sure what the full story is, but I do see some problems as well as government/military complicity. This is obviously based on my gut feelings rather than any specific information.

Also, reading Kamran Khan’s articles, it is clear that he has had access to present and retired KRL scientists, ISI officers and others. This does not seem possible without some go-ahead from the government (or at least some part of it.)

With the kind of sentiments running high back home and blind devotion to our Nuclear Scientists notwithstanding, could it be that they not succumb to worldly greed? Dr. AQ Khan, some years back was also involved in GreenBelt infringement scandal in the capital. That too was brushed under the carpet, why? Because he was Baba e Bomb.

But at the end of the day, that is the kind of heroes we have. In this case we are talking of ultra secret technical expertise which was not doled out in the spirit of Islamic biradri but for the sheer greed of making money. Personal gain.

I don’t think it would have been any better if it was doled out in the spirit of Islamic brotherhood.

I was a 2nd year student at KU at the time of nuclear detonations (May 28, 1999) and felt as if our nation was raped and rejoiced in it. Shorn of the tattered garments left on us in the name of dignity. Nawaz Sharif was at the crest of a nuclear euphoria and even a Yaum e Takbeer to his portly credit could not save him from being given the boot.

I was in the US at the time and was definitely in the minority who were against the nuclear tests.

Pakistan never signed CTBT or the NPT to its own disadvantage. It was just signing for God’ sake and not an actual ratification (ask US of A) that would have redeemed some post-Chagai esteem amongst the comity of nations. But then again that would have been no guarantee to prevent individual rogue acts as reported these days.

It’s not as if I don’t acknowledge the work our nuclear scientists have done; Pakistan did need a nuclear deterrent in the face of India’s on and off belligerence; and the work done despite all the discriminatory bans and limited conditions is commendable, but it will never be an Islamic Bomb, just as there is no such thing as Islamic Nationhood.

I don’t think a nuclear deterrent has really helped Pakistan. It has just made war more deadly.

And bombs can’t be Islamic, since they are quite irreligious.

You might also want to read Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy’s article. Dr. Hoodbhoy is an activist against nuclear weapons and is Professor of Nuclear Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

UPDATE: Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan admits his proliferation activities and absolves the government on national TV and the Pakistani cabinet recommends a pardon for him. Pretty convenient for everyone!

Author: Zack

Dad, gadget guy, bookworm, political animal, global nomad, cyclist, hiker, tennis player, photographer

22 thoughts on “Pakistani Nuclear Proliferation”

  1. u do carry out proper research before taking up a topic. unlike me, who has to transfer all/any thoughts online, real time.
    Bombs aren’t Islamic or Jewish or Christian, but drummin up such a tune hardly serves the purpose. u r most likely to land feet up, smack in the middle of ur own drum.
    and lastly, how did u manage a copy paste job of the entry? i remember installing a copy preventing code on the blog? Don’t tell me there IS a roundabout way of getting content. and i mean it, please don’t tell me, or anyone else for that matter. i have had some of my original words stolen in the past, sans credit, I don’t want that to happen again.

  2. AWK: u do carry out proper research before taking up a topic.

    I try to, but this time it cost me because by the time I posted this, the story had progressed. That’s why I have an update there.

    how did u manage a copy paste job of the entry?

    Since you said don’t tell, I won’t but it is actually extremely simple. I do hope that my excerpting of your post is ok.

  3. I have only one question: Can you name a single nation who gained/developed nuclear technology totally legally and without any proliferation? Is there a single government who doesn’t use underhanded ways for the sake of “national security”?

    Oh sorry! That’s two questions. 😀

  4. What now?

    Here are two deals which have been struck so farKhan the Centrifugist has struck a bargain with Musharraf – confession for clemency Musharraf has struck a bargain with the United States – again, confession for clemency With this both Musharraf’s role i…

  5. why does pakistan maintain such a large military-industrial complex? i mean, india has a hard enough time occupying luke-warm kashmiris, no way in hell they’d want to take on hatefull pakistanis. so why?

  6. Munira: Can you name a single nation who gained/developed nuclear technology totally legally and without any proliferation?

    US. 🙂

    You know that I am not only against proliferation, but against nuclear weapons as well.

    Here’s my question to you: What if India or Israel had given nuclear technology to 3 countries or more? Would you be as generous?

    And look at the countries: Libya, which financed Al-Zulfiqar in the late 1970s (?); Iran, which is a regional rival; North Korea which is a completely crazy regime.

    Is there a single government who doesn’t use underhanded ways for the sake of “national security”?

    Probably not.

    But then when someone gets caught, he has to bear the consequences.

    razib: why does pakistan maintain such a large military-industrial complex?

    The ultimate question. It is part of the equation of power, I guess.

  7. Well, US developed it in the 1st place and the only one till date to use it, so it didn’t need to. But can we be really sure it didn’t secretly give out the technology to anyone else???

    In principle, I’m AGAINST all WMDs. I want a world free of such tools of mass destruction. For me there are no peaceful bombs. Bombs are just bombs and they kill people blindly.

    But realistically thinking, I know no nation will willingly give up or destroy their so-called defense mechanisms. So as an alternative choice I’d like each and every nation to have such a defense mechanism, so that noone is left in a superior position. Besides it’s human nature to acquire what seems out of reach and lose interest in what’s very common; so if we can’t rid the world of these weapons, make them so common that they lose their charm 😉

    And yes, I’d love it if India/Israel give nuclear technology to 3 more countries. Actually all countries who have the power should give it to 3 more, that’ll accelerate the progress of the whole world 😉

  8. Zack: I know India developed its nuclear technology without proliferation and pretty much legally as far as I can tell – of course one could say that it has been hypocritical in its public utterances and actual policy but that is a different matter. Dangers of India proliferating such technology is unlikely for the simple reason that is has no interest in doing so; unlike say Israel or PAkistan both of which becuase of their strategic positions have been involved in some type of dissemination here. Reflective, I think of their greater strategic insecurity rather than any urge to engage in proliferation for its own sake.

  9. How conveniently has the US forgiven the “proliferators”! So why was this whole drama staged???

    The only loser in this has been our poor nation.

  10. Zack you got one fact wrong, that about the US being the first to develop the bomb… the Germans were almost there, and it was a number of german scientists who did a lot of work on the US bomb.

    You also got one more thing wrong: The US has profiliterated nuclear technology to countries like the UK.

  11. Actually most of the work on Nuclear bombs was carried out By an ITALIAN scientist, Enrico Fermi, in the University of Chicago… during the second world war….. He led a team to create the first Nuclear Fission chain reaction.

    It is true the Germans were also researching Nuclear Fission for weapons. but they were of course beaten by the US.

  12. His wife was Jewish btw, thats why the Italian ended up in America… and did not stay in Italy.

    and perhaps why he didnt really bother much with moral aspects of his work.

  13. His wife was Jewish btw, thats why the Italian ended up in America… and did not stay in Italy.

    The consequences of his work didnt matter to him.

  14. Munira: But can we be really sure it didn’t secretly give out the technology to anyone else???

    I really have no idea. KO thinks it gave nuclear weapons technology to the UK.

    In principle, I’m AGAINST all WMDs. I want a world free of such tools of mass destruction.

    Agreed.

    So as an alternative choice I’d like each and every nation to have such a defense mechanism.

    I am speechless. Egalitarian distribution of nuclear weapons! That just seems crazy to me. As nuclear weapons spread, I think the chances of nuclear war would increase. A very bad idea.

    How conveniently has the US forgiven the “proliferators”!

    That does seem a bit odd to me as well.

    The only loser in this has been our poor nation.

    What exactly has Pakistan lost, if the US has forgiven the proliferation issue? A. Q. Khan was laready history and his shenanigans were all well-known to people in Islamabad. So no loss there.

    Conrad: That’s my understanding as well.

    KO: the Germans were almost there.

    Not really. There were technical problems with German efforts.

    it was a number of german scientists who did a lot of work on the US bomb.

    That’s what you get when you persecute people. A number of those scientists were not only German, they were Jewish. In Germany, it is likely their fate would have been death.

    The US has profiliterated nuclear technology to countries like the UK.

    I have heard about that. I know the US provided UK with technology like nuclear submarines etc. but not sure about nuclear weapons development. Can you point out any sources?

    Assuming the US did give nuclear weapons technology to the British, I think that was wrong.

    Kashmiri: There were a number of scientists of all sorts of ethnic backgrounds involved in nuclear research and the Manhattan Project.

    and perhaps why he didnt really bother much with moral aspects of his work.

    That is a bigoted statement. I suggest you take it back.

  15. I know the US provided UK with technology like nuclear submarines etc. but not sure about nuclear weapons development. Can you point out any sources?

    See this talk from the British American Security Council:

    2. UK-US nuclear co-operation

    The first British nuclear bomb —- a straight fission bomb —- was tested in 1952. Thus, as we enter our Golden Jubilee as a nuclear power, it is worth remembering that for most of those 50 years there has been close cooperation with, and reliance on, the United States.

    The scope of this cooperation currently includes:

    warhead design and safety – the UK Trident warhead is closely based on one of the US Trident warheads (the W76);

    leasing of missiles – the UK has access to (but does not own) a pool of Trident II D5 missiles manufactured by US defence company Lockheed Martin;

    research – Britain has cooperative programmes with all three major US nuclear weapons laboratories, including assistance with stockpile stewardship;

    doctrine – since the purchase of Polaris, Britain’s strategic nuclear force has been “committed to NATO and targeted in accordance with Alliance policy and strategic concepts under plans made by the Supreme Allied Command Europe (SACEUR)”. NATO’s concept of nuclear deterrence, is in turn, based predominantly on US nuclear doctrine. NATO nuclear targeting strategy, for example, is carried out in accordance with US nuclear doctrine.

    While this cooperation can be seen as an integral part of the ?UK-US Special Relationship? and a means by which Britain enjoys access to advanced technology “off the shelf”, there are concerns as to the extent of leverage this gives the United States over UK foreign and defence policy in general, and nuclear decision-making in particular. For example, while in opposition, the Labour Party supported “a negotiated, multilateral no first use agreement amongst the nuclear weapons states and strengthened security assurances to non-nuclear weapon states in the form of an international legally-binding treaty”. Amidst rumours of pressure from the Pentagon to drop the issue, the publication of the Strategic Defence Review in 1997 followed NATO strategy to the letter by avoiding any mention of “No first use”.
    >> US-UK Nuclear Cooperation and the Future of the UK Trident System

    There is a whole lot of information avaialable on this site, plus links to lots more. In short, the US jumpstarted the UK’s nuclear program and almost all the UK’s advanced nuclear tech is direct from the US.

  16. Zakaria: What exactly has Pakistan lost, if the US has forgiven the proliferation issue? A. Q. Khan was laready history and his shenanigans were all well-known to people in Islamabad. So no loss there.

    The US might have forgiven Musharraf and his men but it’ll beef up it’s so-called “anti-terrorist”, “anti-proliferation” and the like… operations in Pakistan. Also it’ll not let Pakistan go ahead with its nuclear program as it is; this was an unofficial roll-back of the program coz it could not have been achieved otherwise.

    What our nation has lost???
    The whole world sees us as terrorists.
    Wherever Pakistanis go, they’re getting a hard time, especially in the US.
    There is literally no investment coming into the country because it is not considered “safe” by the US. Even the local resources are either running out or being exhausted by the dictators who have been ruling this country since its creation.
    Economy is in shambles. There are no jobs. There is no return on investments or savings. Except for those few looting the country, it’s difficult for everyone to make ends meet.

    You will contend that all this is not due to the present circumstance and is unrelated. I accept to some extent. But all this got accelerated because of the current government’s (read dictatorship) policies and our being labelled as terrorists due to which we lost all investors due to which our economy suffered due to which our people are suffering.

    What is the fault of the 140 million people of Pakistan that they are all eyed suspiciously all over the world? Are we all terrorists?

    Sidenote: Since US stands for democracy and freedom – it was so vocal about it in the Iraq war – why doesn’t it help us get rid of our dictator instead of using him as a pawn to gain its own interests?

  17. Munira: it’ll beef up it’s so-called “anti-terrorist”, “anti-proliferation” and the like… operations in Pakistan.

    That might happen, but I don’t see much harm in it if the US and Pakistan and Pakistanis act properly and within limits. Unfortunately, I think both Bush and Musharraf are likely to be wrong in this regard.

    Wherever Pakistanis go, they’re getting a hard time, especially in the US.

    Seeing that I live in the US, I think there’s much more rumors going around than reality.

    There is literally no investment coming into the country because it is not considered “safe” by the US.

    That has nothing to do with the US and everything to do with the attacks on foreigners in Pakistan.

    Even the local resources are either running out or being exhausted by the dictators who have been ruling this country since its creation. Economy is in shambles.

    The fault there lies with Pakistan’s rulers and the people who have tolerated them. It is true that the US has supported dictators in Pakistan but they were not put on the throne by the US and Pakistanis could definitely do something about it.

    why doesn’t it help us get rid of our dictator instead of using him as a pawn to gain its own interests?

    I agree that the US support for Musharraf is wrong, but disagree that the US should get rid of him. That is a job for Pakistanis.

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