Nathiagali

We went to Nathiagali in the mountains (elevation: 7,900ft) to escape the heat in Islamabad. The weather was warm there but much nicer.

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We rode/hiked to Mushkpuri peak (elevation: 9,200ft) which was a lot of fun and had beautiful scenery.

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On our way back, we stopped in Bhurban.

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Daman e Koh & Pir Sohawa

The almost seven year old wanted to hike up Margalla Hills but it was too hot.

We drove up to Daman e Koh and then had dinner at Monal Restaurant in Pir Sohawa.

Both places have a nice view of Islamabad.

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Skiing in 95F

It wasn’t as hot today as earlier, but skiing and playing in the snow when it’s 95F (35C) outside is still fun.

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Abu Dhabi

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The Formula Rossa roller coaster was really fast and the Formula 1 simulation was a lot of fun too.

Burj Khalifa

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Dubai: View Out the Window

Here’s the view out our window here in Dubai.

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Hot, Hotter, Hottest

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New Neighborhood, New Census

Eight years ago, I wrote about the census statistics for my neighborhood. In that time, I have moved around a bit, though I am back in metro Atlanta now. And there’s a new census out. So let’s look at the 2010 census data for my neighborhood/block.

  • Only 2.7% of housing units in my block are vacant. So I guess we are weathering the real estate downturn okay.
  • 78% of the people are non-Hispanic White.
  • 16% are Asian. Not sure how they are divided between East Asians and South Asians, but my guess is that a majority is South Asian.

At the city level, we finally get a breakdown of the Asian numbers. In our city of Milton with a population of 32,661, there are 3,399 Asians (10.4%), out of which 2,258 (6.9%) are Indians.

Of the 11,659 occupied housing units in Milton, GA, 73.9% are owner-occupied. Renters are not that common here. Also, the average household size for owners is 3.01 while for renters is 2.22.

In Fulton county, of 920,581 people, 5.6% are Asian and 2.4% are Indian. African Americans are 43.5%, non-Hispanic Whites 40.8% and Hispanics 7.9%.

In the whole of Atlanta metro area (population: 5,268,860), the housing vacancy rate is 10.5%. Non-Hispanic Whites are 50.7%, African Americans 31.9%, Hispanics 10.4% and Asians 4.8%.

Genetics and Health

When the doctor told me I had Ureterolithiasis, I logged into 23andme to check my genetic risk. There was only one SNP (rs4293393) listed there. The G allele increased the risk 14% but I have AA, so typical odds.

Next step was checking SNPedia where I found 8 SNPs, of which some are given below.

rs219780 (23andme): The high risk is CC but I wasn’t genotyped at this location. Also, CC is the most common, so it is quite likely that I have that.

rs219778 (23andme): Carriers of TT have a slightly increased risk and that’s what I have.

rs9310709 (23andme): Risk allele is C and I have CC.

rs10941694: I was not genotyped.

rs13070584: I was not genotyped.

More important than these though is the simple fact that my Dad had it too. Thus if there is a genetic association, I am likely to be higher than typical risk.

Punjabi and What?

Looking at the admixture analysis for my Harappa Ancestry Project, I count 6 Punjabis (not including my sister and I). Let’s average those six and compare them to me and my sister.

Ancestral Pop Average Punjabi Me My sister NSA1 NSA2
South Asian 46% 38% 35% 7% 7%
Balochistan/Caucasus 35% 35% 34% 32% 30%
Kalash 5% 5% 2% -1% 0%
Southeast Asian 1% 0% 1% 1% 1%
Southwest Asian 0% 10% 12% 43% 40%
European 11% 6% 7% -7% 0%
Papuan 0% 0% 1% 2% 2%
Northeast Asian 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Siberian 2% 2% 2% 4% 3%
Eastern Bantu 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
West African 0% 1% 2% 6% 6%
East African 0% 3% 3% 12% 11%

As you can see, the major difference between the Punjabis and me is my Southwest Asian and African percentages.

Now, I know that a quarter of my ancestry is not South Asian. So let’s try to estimate the admixture percentages for that ancestry. Being three-quarters Punjabi (I think), let’s average my sister’s and my results and then subtract 3/4th of the average Punjabi results from them. Then, multiply by 4 and you get NSA1 in the table above, which is supposedly my non-South-Asian ancestor.

Since some of the percentages are negative, I set those to zero and rescaled all the others so that they summed to 100%. That is NSA2.

I computed the average admixture results for a bunch of reference populations. Let’s compare NSA1 and NSA2 to those populations.

The top five populations most similar to NSA1 are:

  1. Yemenese
  2. Jordanians
  3. Palestinian
  4. Egyptians
  5. Syrians

For NSA2, we get the same five populations but the Egyptians and Palestinians exchange places.

This shows roughly that my quarter ancestry is most likely from the Middle East region of Egypt, Arabia or the Levant.

Let’s look at it another way. If I know that I have Punjabi and Egyptian ancestry, I can use the average Punjabi and average Egyptian admixture percentages to calculate my percentage of both ancestries since that has to sum to 100%. So:

Zack = p * Punjabi + (1-p) * Egyptian

And we solve for p using least squares.

I got 81.3% Punjabi for myself and 75.8% for my sister. On average, that’s 78.5% Punjabi and 21.5% Egyptian, which is pretty close to our genealogical information.