Monthly Archives: March 2004 - Page 3

Urdu Blogging and Web

ا آ ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر ڑ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن ں و ہ ھ ء ی ے

Problems Viewing Urdu Text Above

I am using the Tahoma font for writing Urdu. Unicode is the standard character set for such things nowadays and the Arabic script part of it contains characters for Arabic, Persian, Urdu, etc. Some other fonts provide the Arabic characters which are a subset of Urdu ones, but not all Urdu characters. Tahoma has support for Urdu characters.

I have checked both Windows 2000 and XP and the Tahoma versions (2.80 and 3.00 respectively) installed with these two operating systems support Urdu properly. Windows 98 by default does not. However, installing a newer version of the font might help you viewing Urdu pages.

Older web browsers won’t display Urdu correctly. You should use a recent browser, like Internet Explorer 5.5 or later, Mozilla 1.5 or later, Netscape Navigator 6.0 or later, Opera 6 or later. Alan Wood has a detailed list and description of different browsers’ support for Unicode. He also has specific information about Arabic support.

Mac OS 9.2 and Mac OS X also support the Arabic script. I am not sure about Unix/Linux.

This website has a list of operating systems, browsers and fonts that support the Arabic script.

If you have more information about viewing or creating Urdu web pages on Macintosh or Unix, please let me know. Also, let me know if you would like me to include other Mac- or Unix-specific fonts in my style class for Urdu and how my weblog’s Urud posts look in other browsers and operating systems.

I have set up my weblog so that if your computer does not have a Tahoma font, then it is provided from my website automatically. This should work on both Windows machines and Macs. I am not sure about Unix. However, if you have a really old version of Tahoma which does not contain all Urdu characters, then my newer version of the font is unfortunately not downloaded (I am actually not sure about this.) I am using Microsoft WEFT 3 to embed the fonts.

If the font is downloaded, it is installed only temporarily to view my weblog. This is due to the licensing provided with the Tahoma font. I can only do “editable embedding” which means temporary installation. “Installable embedding” which would allow a font to be permanently installed is not allowed.

Umair has a font for download as well as instructions on how to install it at the bottom of his Urdu weblog. That should help all Windows users.

UPDATE: Asif has an installable package of Urdu fonts for Windows.

How to Type in Urdu

I’ll only describe the Windows options here since they are the only ones I am familiar with. For other systems, please take a look at the links at the end of the post.

You have two options: You can either install full Urdu/Arabic support or use an Urdu Unicode editor.

Urdu support based on Unicode is available only in Windows 2000 and XP. The Microsoft website has the instructions on how to install Urdu language support and keyboard. Once you have installed it, you can simply switch language to Urdu from the taskbar and start typing in Urdu.

If you are like me, you might not like the Urdu keyboard layout. Shehzad has designed a phonetic Urdu keyboard. This maps Urdu characters on your keyboard such that phonetically similar Urdu and English characters are mapped to the same key. This is good for us who are used to typing in English. I recommend that you install that as well. The installation instructions are on his page.

UPDATE: I like this phonetic Urdu keyboard layout better.

Another thing you might need to get used to an Urdu keyboard is the on-screen keyboard. This is available from the accessibility options of Windows. You can either click on the keys of the on-screen keyboard or just use it as a guide while you type.

If you are not using Windows 2000 or XP or you don’t want to install the whole Arabic/Urdu support stuff, you can download some Unicode editor. A good one is Unipad. The free version allows you to type upto 1000 characters. For longer text, you have to buy it. It comes with a built-in Urdu keyboard and font. You can display the Unipad keyboard on-screen as well. Unipad does not require that you have the Urdu/Arabic language support installed on your machine. Once you have typed your text in Urdu, you can copy and paste it into other applications. If you are planning to put the text online and are afraid if you might not have support for Urdu setup properly, you can select the Urdu text in Unipad and convert it to XML/HTML entities. All the Urdu characters will change to &1651; or some other number. This is useful sometimes, though the problem is with editing. Unipad comes through, however, since you can convert the entities back to the characters as well.

How to Type Urdu Comments

Now, let’s talk about how you can type Urdu comments on this weblog. You can follow one of the two methods from the last section.

There is, however, the little matter of correct alignment of the text since Urdu is written from right to left while English is written left to right. To get that correct, you should do the following:

  • At the start of every Urdu paragraph, type in English: @p[ur](urdu). @ followed by a space.
  • If you have an English word within the Urdu paragraph, surround it with some code like this: %[en-US](en)Word%.
  • If you have an Urdu word in an English paragraph, it needs something similar: %[ur](urdu)لفظ%.

Urdu Blogging

Let’s now talk about what stuff I had to do with my blogging software to get the Urdu blogging going properly. This is obviously Movable Type specific, but the general principles apply to other blogging tools as well. I might later add stuff about Blogger. If you are blogging in Urdu, please write up something about how to setup your blogging tool for that and let me know.

First of all, you need to make a few changes in mt.cfg. FInd the line about PublishCharset. Uncomment it (by removing the # at the start of the line) and change it to PublishCharset utf-8. This will change the character encoding of your weblog from ISO-8859-1 (Latin 1) to the Unicode one. Also, uncomment the NoHTMLEntites line and set it to NoHTMLEntites 1. This will leave your Urdu Unicode character as is instead of changing them over to HTML entities like &1649; etc.

There is one more change that I did in mt.cfg. This one was for comments. Since I am allowing comments in Urdu, I have to allow some extra HTML tags than the default to take care of the alignment. I’ll explain the tags later, but here’s my sanitize line in mt.cfg:

GlobalSanitizeSpec a href,b,br/,p,strong,em,ul,li,blockquote,p class lang,span class lang,i

If your web server is running Apache, you should also add the following in the .htaccess file in the top weblog directory (if the file doesn’t exist, create a new one):

AddType 'text/html; charset=UTF-8' html

This tells the server that all your files with .html extension should be served as of type text/html and with the character set of UTF-8.

The next problem was that the Movable Type interface was using fonts that did not display all Urdu characters properly. So I was seeing a lot of squares while typing my Urdu entries. To fix that, we need to make changes to the Movable Type interface style file. This is styles.css in your Movable Type directory. I am providing my styles.css file with the necessary changes.

The changes basically are to add “tahoma” as the first font in “font-family” for the following classes/styles: a.list, input, textarea, textarea.width500, textarea.wide, textarea.short310, and textarea.short340.

The last thing that needed to be done was to define the alignment for Urdu text in a style class for the weblog. Here is my CSS file. I am using the following two classes:

.urdu {
font-family: tahoma, "Arial Unicode MS", arial, georgia, verdana, sans-serif;
font-size: medium;
text-align: right;
direction: rtl;
unicode-bidi: embed;
.en {
text-align: left;
direction: ltr;
unicode-bidi: embed;
font-family:georgia, verdana, arial, sans-serif;

Whenever I have an Urdu paragraph, I use <p class="urdu" lang="ur">...</p> around it. I don’t use anything around the English paragraphs.

When I have a few words of Urdu in an English paragraph, I use <span class="urdu" lang="ur">...</span> around the Urdu words. Similarly, when I have some English words in an Urdu paragragh, I put <p class="en" lang="en-US">...</p> around them.

Actually, since I use the MT-Textile plugin, I use the simpler Textile codes as I showed in the section about commenting.


  1. Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources
  2. Unicode
  3. Browsers and Fonts that work for Arabic
  4. Shehzad’s website about Urdu websites creation
  5. Mac OS 9 Language Pack Installation
  6. Alan Wood’s List of Arabic Unicode Fonts
  7. Urdu Support for Windows
  8. Justifying Arabic Text
  9. HTML lang and dir attributes
  10. A better way for language-based styles
  11. Authoring HTML for Middle Eastern Content
  12. U-Trans: A program for converting ArabTex transliteration code into Unicode plus an Urdu Nastalique font
  13. Unipad: A Unicode text editor
  14. Urdu Phonetic Keyboard Layout for Unipad
  15. Syed Rizwan Rizvi’s Urdu-related page
  16. Hugo’s Urdu Page
  17. Urdu Alphabet
  18. Yahoo! Group for Urdu Computing

UPDATE: More here and here.

اردو بلاگ ویب رنگ

I have created a webring for Urdu bloggers. The purpose is to collect a list of all blogs which are written in Urdu (partially like this one or fully) in one place. Here is the home page for this webring. There is a link for the webring through which you can reach other Urdu weblogs down on the right sidebar.

Currently, there are three blogs on the ring, including Tuzk-e-Jalali by Jalal who has another blog in English and Urdu Blog by Umair Salam.

If you have a weblog where you post, even if ocassionally, in Urdu, please join the webring using the form on the Urdu blogs webring home page. Also, please spread the word about this webring.

میں نے اردو بلاگز کے لۓ ایک ویب رنگ بنایا ہے۔ اس کا مقصد ان تمام بلاگز کی فہرست جمع کرنا ہے جو اردو میں لکھے جاتے ہیں- میرے بلاگ کے دائیں طرف نیچے بھی اس ویب رنگ کا لنک ہے جہاں سے آپ دوسرے اردو بلاگ جا سکتے ہیں-

ابھی اس رنگ میں تین بلاگ ہیں- تزک جلالی جلال کا بلاگ ہے- وہ انگریزی میں بھی لکھتا ہے- عمیر سلام انٹرنیٹ کا پہلا اردو بلاگر ہے-

اگر آپ اپنے بلاگ پر کبھی بھی اردو میں لکھتے ہیں تو اس ویب رنگ میں ضرور شامل ہوں- میں آپ کا مشکور ہوں گا اگر آپ اس اردو بلاگز کی فہرست کا ذکر اور لوگوں سے بھی کریں-

Presidential Endorsement

Since today is Super Tuesday and there is a primary here in Georgia, may be I should go ahead and endorse somebody. There are obviously a few caveats:

  • I am a New Jersey resident, so I can’t vote in Georgia. And the Jersey primary isn’t till June 8.
  • Who am I kidding? I am not even a US citizen. So no vote for me.

Still, that can’t stop me from endorsing someone. So here goes:

Read more »

Walking on Campus

Georgia Tech

Read more »

Satanic Theater

I have finally found the perfect theater for watching The Passion of the Christ.

Tickets at one movie theater screening Mel Gibson’s “The Passion of the Christ” are being deemed decidedly unholy.

The number 666, which many Christians recognize as the “mark of the beast,” is appearing on movie tickets for Gibson’s film at a Georgia theater, drawing complaints from some moviegoers.

The machine that prints tickets assigned the number 666 as a prefix on all the tickets for the film, said Gary Smith, owner of the Movies at Berry Square in northwest Georgia. The 666 begins a series of numbers that are listed below the name of the movie, the date, time and price

[…]In the Bible, the book of Revelation says 666 is the “number of the beast,” usually interpreted as Satan or the Antichrist.

Several patrons have made comments about the numbers, and one person who was uncomfortable having 666 on her ticket asked for a pass to be substituted for a ticket.

“A lot of people have asked what the numbers mean, some said it seemed odd, some said it was inappropriate,” said theater employee Erica Diaz.

All I have to do is to drive about 60 miles northwest to Rome, GA to see not only the movie but these interesting people too.

No Saudi Visit for Us

Via Brian’s Study Breaks, it seems that the Saudis are doing what they do best.

Saudi Arabia is barring visits by Jews after launching a new visa scheme to try to attract more tourists. The Saudi tourism department website said tourist visas would not be issued to Israeli passport holders or Jews.

Earlier this month, it began a drive to attract more foreign visitors by issuing visas to non-Muslim tourists for the first time. It has traditionally only issued visas for work purposes, officially-approved visits and pilgrimage to Mecca.

There has not previously been an explicit ban on Jews travelling to Saudi Arabia, though people with Israeli passports or with Israeli stamps in their documents, have not been allowed in.

A page on the Supreme Commission for Tourism website originally said visas would not be issued to Israeli passport holders or those with a passport containing an Israeli stamp; “those who don’t abide by the Saudi traditions concerning appearance and behaviours”; “those under the influence of alcohol”; or “Jewish people”.

The page was later amended, removing details of the restrictions.

That is clear and open anti-semitism and par for the course for the Saudis.

I have dropped Saudi Arabia from the list of countries we would like to visit one day. Granted it was at number 80 or so on that list. Having a restriction against Jews is unconscionable.

The Saudi Commission for Tourism website had this cryptic explanation:

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s visa regulations are available at the Kingdom’s Consulates. When erroneous information was noticed on SCT’s website, it was removed. SCT regrets any inconvenience this may have caused.

برائن سے مجھے پتہ چلا کہ سعودی حکومت اپنے کرتوتوں سے باز نہیں آ سکتی۔ بی بی سی کے مطابق سعودی عرب اب غیرمسلموں کو بھی سیر و سیاحت کے لئے ویزا دے گا- مگر اس اجازت سے کچھ لوگ مستثنی ہوں گے: اسرائیلی پاسپورٹ کے حامل اشخاص، جن کے پاسپورٹ پر اسرائیلی ویزا کی مہر ہے، وہ لوگ جو لباس وغیرہ میں سعودی طور طریقوں کا لحاظ نہیں کر سکتے، جو شراب کے نشے میں ہوں یا یہودی لوگ۔

یہ فہرست سعودی کمیشن براۓ سیاحت کے ویب سائٹ پر موجود تھی- مگر اب وہاں نہیں ہے۔

یہ سعودی حکومت کی یہودیوں سے نفرت کا ایک اور نمونہ ہے۔

یہ خبر سن کر میں نے فیصلہ کیا ہے کہ میں سعودی عرب کو ان ملکوں کی فہرست سے نکال رہا ہوں جہاں ہم کسی دن جانے کا ارادہ رکھتے ہیں۔ اس سے پہلے بھی سعودی عرب اس فہرست میں بہت پیچھے تھا۔